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If the address matches an existing you will receive an with instructions to reset your password. If the address matches an existing you will receive an with instructions to retrieve your username. Methods : A sample of Belgian and Dutch adults completed the RST-PQ, and to assess convergent and divergent validity, a subgroup also completed other personality and symptom questionnaires. However, this model did not satisfy the requirements of an acceptable fit.
Personality development has long been hypothesized to be influenced by specific brain systems e. Extensive research has shown the importance of the reinforcement sensitivity theory RST; Gray, in our understanding of the structure and causation of personality Corr, The theory postulates that the human personality can be explained by neurobiological systems that regulate appetitive and aversive motivation.
Two valuation systems weigh the gains and losses that stem from a specific situation e. Three brain circuit systems represent the motivational output in reaction to specific stimuli: the behavioral approach system BASthe behavioral inhibition system BISand the fight—flight—freeze system FFFS. BAS is assumed to coordinate specific subprocesses that elicit the behavior of impulsivity and extraversion Smillie et al.
The BIS is considered a conflict detector and regulator Corr, and, when activated, the detection of conflict le to a process of conflict resolution, during which time a state of anxiety is generated. This serves the function of biasing all ongoing psychological processes in this negative emotional state Corr, Individual differences in the reactivity of BIS are assumed to underlie trait anxiety Gray, However, the t subsystems hypothesis ps that, although BIS and BAS operate as two interdependent systems, they tly influence behavior that is seen as a product of activated systems — this is typical in Dutch personality questionnaire human situations e.
Finally, the Velocity Hypothesis assumes that either an approach or an avoidance motive can lead to either positive or negative affect Carver, ; Harmon-Jones, — this outcome is determined not by the kind of motive but rather by the efficiency of the action i.
At present, there is no consensus as to the relationships between these subsystems. Corr suggested that a combination of the hypotheses is viable depending on the specific demands of the situation i. This development was motivated by the fact that other RST measures were either based on the original theory or, if based on r-RST, do not provide an adequate measurement instrument, especially related to the complexity of the BAS for an overview, see Corr, The items stemmed from other frequently used RST instruments and from qualitative responses to defensive and approach situations Corr, After exploratory and confirmatory analyses, the original pool was fine-tuned to 65 items measuring six scales.
The scale consisted of three thematic facets that encaptivated the theoretical process of defensive fight, flight, and freeze. A seventh scale of defensive fight was proposed by Corr and Cooper but was found problematic and is therefore generally disregarded Eriksson et al. Therefore, in this article, this scale will be referred to as flight—freeze system FFS. Active avoidance is provoked when the threat is distant enough to not constitute an immediate danger.
When the threat is perceived as closer but still avoidable, Flight is introduced. Freezing is elicited when the epicenter of the threat is unavoidable, making an escape impossible. Second, BIS is a unidimensional scale defined as the motivation to cope with the conflict that arises when aversive Dutch personality questionnaire must be approached.
Motor planning interruption refers to the inhibition of motor programs when an avoidable threat is presented.
Worry concerns the cognitive process of rumination that is accompanied by BIS activation. Obsessive thoughts, on the other hand, is the cognitive and emotional engagement with dangerous stimuli that are unidentifiable, unlocatable, or unavoidable.
Corr and CooperPugnaghi et al. The multidimensionality of BAS is both theoretically Smillie et al.
GDP was ificantly positively associated with conscientiousness, as reward interest was with openness. So far, translations have confirmed the proposed six-factor model with similar fit indices Table 1. The aim of the present study is to translate the RST-PQ to Dutch, to investigate its psychometric features, and to establish its validity within a Dutch-speaking community sample.
The instrument has the potential to be extended to more higher-stakes Dutch personality questionnaire such as for assessment purposes, but this is disregarded in this research article, as we first want to introduce the questionnaire in the Dutch-speaking research context. After obtaining written permission from Dr. Koen Luyckx and L. They compared their translations and searched for Dutch personality questionnaire mutual interpretation when their translated items differed.
After a conclusive Dutch translation was obtained, the items were back-translated into English without reference to the original wording by two independent researchers. Finally, two independent doctoral students linked the translated items to the original items to assure consistency.
The aim of the study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the RST-PQ in a Dutch-speaking community sample. Currently, the RST-PQ is exclusively used for research purposes, and the sample was therefore collected in the general population. We hypothesize that the two-factor model will show a less adequate fit in comparison to the six-factor model. We expect all scales to be reliable i. A negative correlation is anticipated between BIS and extraversion. FFS is also hypothesized to correlate with neuroticism and anxiety, but we expect to find smaller effect sizes in comparison to BIS.
FFS is additionally expected to correlate positively with gender. Within the subscales, reward interest is thought to correlate positively with openness. In case of a good model fit, we would consider retaining the current RST-PQ model, but based on studies, we expect an inadequate model fit. The sample consisted of adult Dutch-speaking respondents who voluntarily participated, of whom were female The mean age of the participants was Concerning educational level, 0.
The questionnaire assesses five subscales. The questionnaire measures a wide array of symptoms. Data were obtained through an online self-report survey in Dutch, programmed in Qualtrics, version Qualtrics, Provo, UT. Dutch personality questionnaire were e-mailed to small and medium business companies in Flanders. After reading and agreeing with the informed consent, respondents were requested to fill in the questionnaires at home or wherever they felt comfortable. The survey included respondents. It was emphasized that respondents who had already taken part in the survey were not allowed to complete this survey.
The study was randomly distributed in Dutch-speaking student fora and other local companies to attract more respondents for the validation of the RST-PQ. In total, people participated in the smaller survey. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the KU Leuven. In total, respondents took part in the study.
Model parameters were estimated with the weighted least square mean and variance adjusted WLSMV estimation algorithm as the data were categorical. One reason might be that the original RST-PQ model did not allow for items to load on more than one factor. In order to discover cross-loading items and to select more unidimensional items based on a fitting factorial model, we used an exploratory structural equation model ESEM analysis. In an ESEM, only the of factors is specified beforehand.
Consequently, items were selected with factor loadings equal to or higher than. After statistical selection, a content-specific analysis was done to ensure all facets of each scale were represented in the brief version. In favor of comparability between the Dutch RST-PQ and other translated versions, the latter model will be further explored, although the CFI did not reach the criterion of adequate fit. These correlations were similar to the correlations reported by Corr and Cooper To determine convergent and divergent validity, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the RST-PQ scales and other relevant personality and symptom questionnaires Table 3.
The show that the expectations were confirmed. Moreover, the modification indices suggested cross-loadings for several items. In light of these considerations, an adaptation was introduced to construct a brief RST-PQ with a well-delineated factor structure and reliable scales. The psychometric properties of the brief version were evaluated in an identical way and with the same sample as the long version. In order to discover cross-loading items and to select more unidimensional items based on a fitting factorial model, Dutch personality questionnaire used an ESEM.
This model fitted the data adequately. Items were selected if their factor loadings were higher than. As described earlier, for each scale, the five highest loading items were selected. For BIS, the 10 highest loading items were selected. The content specificity of the scales should not be disregarded.
Hence, a manual control warranted that all facets were represented in the brief scales. Therefore, the two highest loading items of these facets items 52 and 58 for FFS and items 18 and 55 for BIS were added to the brief scale Model 4. Omega coefficients ranged from. Although the correlations might be somewhat more pronounced, a similar pattern to the long version is shown. The of the CFA confirmed the six-factor structure of the original questionnaire, with fit indices similar to those reported by Corr and Cooper and other translated versions of the RST-PQ Eriksson et al.
All subscales presented good internal consistency coefficients that are comparable to the original version. As expected, a clear six-factor structure with fewer cross-loading items than the original RST-PQ was observed.
These shortened scales of the B-RST-PQ correlated well with the original long scales, suggesting only a minimal loss of information. On the item level, it was noticed that the items that correlated most with impulsivity were deleted from the RR scale, which might be the cause for a less strong relationship between the two scales. Concerning the convergent and divergent validity of the B-RST-PQ scales, the correlation pattern replicated that of the longer version, but somewhat more pronounced.
As expected, FFS correlated weaker than BIS with the aforementioned scales, but this is more manifest in the brief version. Both scales differentiated in other associations as well: BIS correlated strongly positive with anxiety and negative with extraversion and age. FFS correlated positive with gender. Reward interest showed a positive correlation with openness, as GDP did to conscientiousness. The correlation between reward reactivity and conscientiousness was not assumed.
Our further support the premise that high RR scorers characterize individuals Dutch personality questionnaire can also control their impulses. Another correlation that was not expected was the moderate negative association between impulsivity and agreeableness. In most studies, indicate a weaker link. This might just be a sample characteristic. Besides the strengths of this study, some limitations need to be addressed as well. The sample is not representative of the Dutch-speaking population and features an overrepresentation of female participants.
We did not have access to a second, independent sample to verify our item selection. Moreover, the sample sizes used for convergent and divergent validity were unsatisfactory, which might have distorted the current findings. It is important to emphasize that there is a capitalization on chance and that these might not be generalizable.Dutch personality questionnaire
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The Psychometric Properties of a Brief Dutch Version of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire